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Dr Kaukab Siddique | Editor-in-Chief Zulhijja 25 1433/November 10, 2012 # 50

Breaking News: President Obama is preparing to go to Burma [Myanmer] to show support for the Burmese government just as new outburst of attacks on Muslims in Burma is taking place. Now the Burmese military and police are openly supporting the Buddhist mobs attacking unarmed Muslims. In an interview with BBC, Nov.8, Nobel Peace Prize winner, Burmese opposition leader Ms. Kyi, refused to condemn the mass killings of Muslims and supported the Buddhists. BBC was taken aback.
On November 9: A mass rally was held by Jamaate Islami in Karachi, Pakistan, to condemn the latest outburst of Buddhist mob attacks on Burma's Muslims. Thousands of people carrying Islamic banners were addressed by Muhammad Hussain Mehnati, Karachi's Jamaate Islami leader. He wanted to know why the UN is silent about the genocide of Muslims in Burma while it was active to support of South Sudan and Timor.
Leaders of refugees from Burma also addressed the gathering.

Reader Hajjah Nabila objects to Dr. Siddique's view that presidential voting is kufr and explains why she voted.
. [ Please scroll way down .]

This is the anniversary of Iqbal, the Poet of the East & great Islamic thinker. Br. Rich has sent excerpts from Wikipedia. Please scroll way down. Understanding Iqbal is key to our struggle today. Remember that he changed a great deal from Indian nationalist to Islamic thinker.

Africa and Jamaat al-Muslimeen have an integral connection. Almost 80% of Africa is Muslim. In a brilliant message on Ethiopia, Sis. Ashira, Secretary General of Jamaat al-Muslimeen, brings out our duties towards Africa.
Please scroll way down.

Khutba on the Monster Storm
Allah showed us that He alone is the Superpower. He is changing the world.
When you insult the Prophet, pbuh, the wrath of Allah comes.

Imam Badi Ali gave this historic Juma' Khutba on November 9 in Greensboro, North Carolina

  1. Allah Almighty created the universe and He can do in it what He Wills.

  2. Allah created humans to build the world and to worship Him. He sent Messengers to guide humanity and He sent Signs and warnings to help humans to refrain from mischief.

  3. Suffering, hardship and pain benefit mankind by bringing people towards Allah, by clearing them of the mess they have created and rreturning them to their fitrah or original goodness.

  4. The Qur'an gives examples of nations which ignored Allah's warnings and He replaced them with new ones. Look at the verses about Noah, Lot, Moses, the people of Ad and Thamud.

  5. Allah is MUNTAQIM. He is not angry but brings about revenge by punishing aggressors. He can reward and punish. He does not need anyone. He is al-JABBAR. He cam do anything He wants. His Will is over all, and no one's Will is above him.

  6. Sometimes human misery is such that humans look forward to a hurricane to come and cleanse their cities from human mischief. The people have a sense of GHIRA [honor] that they don't want to live in shame.

  7. Natural disasters sometimes happen so that humans can call on Allah for help, as Syed Maudoodi has pointed out. {Here the imam quoted Maulana Maudoodi.]

  8. Hurricane SANDY exposed the weakness of America which considers itself a superpower. It became like a Third World country with misery like that of others. Sandy exposed America's RACISM. It exposed capitalism that till today the poor and downtrodden have not been helped while the powerful got all their needs met.

  9. Allah sends SIGNS, wars, earthquakes. A hurricane CANNOT BE STOPPED. We know it's coming. We have advance warning but with all our resources, we cannot stop it. Change can happen within a very short time. In China, 800,000 were killed in an earthquake. We should take these warnings seriously before something like that happens to us.

  10. We should teach our children: This is not just "weather." It is related to our behavior. Islam says there is a reason for such disasters.

  11. There are natural laws enacted by Allah. Some are obvious and some are not so obvious. There is action and reaction. Majority of suffering is due to our negatives reactions to Allah's Law .

  12. Some basic reasons for our suffering: i. To punish mischief and wrong doing. ii. To prepare us and warn us.
    iii. For trial and test. iv. To create balance because we are moving away from truth.

  13. MAJOR CAUSES of DESTRUCTION: Disbelieving Allah and insulting His Prophet, pbuh. Noah was insulted and mocked. His people were destroyed. Muhammad, pbuh, is being insulted and attacked even today. Allah will defend His Prophet, pbuh, We can see the punishment.
    Muhammad, pbuh, warned and informed us that if he is rejected and insulted, there will be punishmjent. Umar ibn al-Khattab, r.a., warned that actions will be judged by intentions [Hadith]. Umar ibn Abdel Aziz said that he would leave the city if the corruption was not ended. We should ask Allah's forgiveness and give charity.

  14. Our society is full of HARAM: Zina [adultery] and RIBA [interest] are widespread along with other evils. So, beware.

Most Americans were not fooled by or interested in the "Elections." Check the Statistics.
by Kaukab Siddique

It was a "ho-hum" election: extremely boring. Most people who voted would have voted the way they voted anyway without all the hulabaloo raised by the two political parties. So, more than a BILLION dollars were spent in convincing the small number of voters who were "undecided."
In any case it was not a great victory for Obama; certainly not a landslide. He got 61 million votes while Romney got 58 million.
However those who DID NOT vote outnumbered the combined number for both Obama and Romney. About 94 million DID NOT vote. [Source:, Nov.9.] Thus there is a hard core of Americans who are not fooled by this process of "elections" however much money is spent on them.

The Republicans, as I wrote before the elections, do not understand the newly emerging demographics of America. One of the most important segments is the vast number of young women who are sexually active outside marriage. The old style attitudes of the Republicans are extremely distasteful to them. They want obortion on demand and need easily available contraceptives for random sex especially on weekends.

Homosexuals are well organized and active. They make life difficult for anyone who dares speak out against homosexuality. Obama understood their political radicalism and put it to good use.

Hispanics are here in impressive numbers. They are very religious and if the Republicans had understood them, they could have been a potent force against Obama's army of homosexuals. Romney did not realize that for Hispanics, immigration is the most important issue. Obama knows how to exploit the needy and he won over the Hispanics.

African Americans were predictable. They voted en bloc for Obama. A Black Middle Class has emerged but it still sees the Whites as a threat. Obama has Black critics but they don't see any alternative to a nominally Black president.

The Jewish lobby voted for Obama but rich Jews also poured huge sums into the Republican coffers. The media are controlled by Zionist Jews on both sides. Israel wins America's elections regardless of who wins. Israel was not brought into question by anyone, not even by minor candidates..

As I pointed out when the election campaign began, Romney was the candidate the DEMOCRATS wanted to lead the Republicans, He is a Mormon and his leadership was a great embarrassment for the Christian core of the Republican party.


Most Muslims do not take part in the election process. There is nothing in it for them. Last time, they had Keith Ellison and he had to start his campaign from a synagogue and spend his holidays in Israel.
The non-participation is a blessing. Thus we still have ISLAM here and "American Islam" has been isolated. Only the elitist Muslims in CAIR and ISNA [about 30,000 across America] are concerned about presidential elections.
These elitist Muslims still do not understand that America's elections are RACE BASED. African Americans have to vote for Obama because of their history in America which is epitomized by the Republicans. The Jews cleverly do not let them "see" that they are White too though not Christrian.
Islam is not a racial religion. We cannot vote for a candidate because he supports the Pakistani government or a candidate who supports India. Islam is not a nationalist religion either, just as it is not racial.
Our first concern is the Guidance in the Qur'an and the Sunnah: Hence we cannot support those who support Israel. The Qur'an commands us to drive out the occupiers of our lands. We cannot support those who invaded Iraq and Afghanistan, those who are bombing Pakistan, and those who are threatening Iran,
America, both Republican and Democrat, has a history of opposing Islam and attempting to wipe out Islamic leaders. We know that America supported every tyrant who imprisoned, tortured, raped and killed our people.
So, the task of America's Muslims is to spread the Word of Allah and to stand by the oppressed people of this country, particularly the 94 MILLION who did NOT vote.

Spotlights on the Presidential Elections.
Jamaat al-Muslimeen leader Imam Badi Ali comments on Obama & Romney
Spotlight #1:
It was an election without direction. Hypocrisy was its main element.

Spotlight #2:
Other than their logos, donkey and elephant, there is hardly a difference between the two.

Spotlight #3:
Citizens without good choices will end up with bad officials.

Spotlight #4:
The two parties were voting AGAINST the other, not FOR anything.

Spotlight #5:
They are making a living off elections. They are already preparing for the next!

Spotlight #6:
Majority of the people are not represented by either party.

Spotlight #7:
America would be paradise if voting had any meaning or substance.

Spotlight #8:
The American people are unable to solve their problems and are led to believe that elections are the solution.

Spotlight #9:
Who is the real force behind these elections? People are made to think that "we are."

Spotlight #10:
Americans need to see that these are NOT TWO PARTIES but one.

With thanks to The Ugly Truth, Idaho.
Obama win infuriates drone victims
 angel of death 4
US president gave no indication he would halt or alter the drone programme
The roars celebrating the re-election of US President Barack Obama on television give Mohammad Rehman Khan a searing headache, as years of grief and anger come rushing back.
The 28-year-old Pakistani accuses the president of robbing him of his father, three brothers and a nephew, all killed in a US drone aircraft attack a month after Obama first took office.
"The same person who attacked my home has gotten re-elected," he told Reuters in the capital, Islamabad, where he fled after the attack on his village in South Waziristan, one of several ethnic Pashtun tribal areas on the Afghan border.
"Since yesterday, the pressure on my brain has increased. I remember all of the pain again."
In his re-election campaign, Obama gave no indication he would halt or alter the drone programme, which he embraced in his first term to kill Al Qaida and Taliban militants in Pakistan and Afghanistan without risking American lives.
Drone strikes are highly unpopular among many Pakistanis, who consider them a violation of sovereignty that cause unacceptable civilian casualties.
Taliban recruits
"Whenever he has a chance, Obama will bite Muslims like a snake. Look at how many people he has killed with drone attacks," said Haji Abdul Jabar, whose 23-year-old son was killed in such a bombing.
Analysts say anger over the unmanned aircraft may have helped the Taliban gain recruits, complicating efforts to stabilise the unruly border region between Pakistan and Afghanistan. That could also hinder Obama's plan to withdraw US troops from Afghanistan in 2014.
Obama authorised nearly 300 drone strikes in Pakistan during his first four years in office, more than six times the number during the administration of George W. Bush, according to the New America Foundation policy institute.
Since 2004, a total of 337 US drone strikes in Pakistan have killed between 1,908 and 3,225 people.
The institute estimates about 15 per cent of those killed were non-militants, although that percentage has declined sharply to about 1-2 per cent this year. Washington says drone strikes are very accurate and cause minimal civilian deaths.
The Pakistani government says tens of thousands of Pakistanis have been killed in the fight against militants. Many were civilians caught in suicide bombings. Others were killed by the Pakistani army.
No difference
Getting accurate data on casualties and the effects of drones is extremely difficult in the dangerous, remote and often inaccessible tribal areas. The Taliban often seal off the sites of strikes.
While the aerial campaign has weakened Al Qaida, its ally, the Pakistani Taliban, remains a potent force despite a series of Pakistan army offensives against their strongholds in the northwest.
Seen as the biggest security threat to the US-backed Pakistani government, that faction of the Taliban is blamed for many of the suicide bombings across Pakistan, and a number of high profile attacks on military and police facilities.
"We are amazed that Obama has been re-elected. But for us there is no difference between Obama and Romney; both are enemies. And we will keep up our jihad and fight alongside our Afghan brothers to get the Americans out of Afghanistan," said Pakistan Taliban spokesman Ehsanullah Ehsan.
On Thursday, a suicide bomber rammed the gates of a military base in Pakistan's biggest city, Karachi, killing at least one soldier and wounding more than a dozen people.
Pakistanis were largely indifferent in the run-up to Tuesday's election, expecting little change to the drone attacks regardless of whether Obama or Republican challenger Mitt Romney won.
"Any American, whether Obama or Mitt Romney, is cruel," Warshameen Jaan Haji, whose neighbourhood was struck by a drone last week, told Reuters on the eve of the election. "I lost my wife in the drone attack and my children are injured. Whatever happens, it will be bad for Muslims."
Pakistani politician Imran Khan, a vocal critic of US drone strikes, said he believed Obama stepped up the attacks in his first term so he wouldn't look weak on national security.

From Deep Inside America's Prison Horror, the Voice of Islam promises Victory.'The Happiest People On Earth'
Today is the day of 'Arafah.
The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: "The greatest supplication is the supplication of the day of 'Arafah, and the best thing I and the Prophets before me ever said is 'la ilaha ill Allah, Wahdahu la sharika lah, lahu al-mulk wa lahu al-hamd, wa Huwa 'ala kulli shay'in Qadir' [there is none worthy of worship but Allah; He has no partners; the kingdom is His, all praise is for Him, and He is Able to do all things]."
The existence of our Creator, Allah, the realization of His immense power, and singling Him out for submission and worship - known in Arabic as "Tawhid" - is what this day revolves around. In fact, it is what our existence on this Earth revolves around.
All indications are that the secular/"democratic"/capitalist/Western/whatever ideological experiment of the past few centuries to bring some meaning and happiness to humanity has ended in dismal failure. The main purveyor of this ideology (also known as "freedom"), America has become an exhausted, depressed, delusional, paranoid, debt-ridden, and overall hypocritical entity with dark circles under its eyes, and has proven itself unfit to lead humanity.
It's time to try something new.
Tomorrow is the holiday of 'Id al-Adha. Like other holidays, it will come and go. But for a Muslim - for an adherent to Tawhid - everyday is a cause for celebration and happiness. A Muslim from the early generations, al-Hasan al-Basri said: "Each day that a believer spends obeying his Protector (Allah), remembering Him and thanking Him, is a cause for celebration (a 'Id)." If you learn where you came from, why you are here, and where you are going, the underlying themes of your waking moments will be nothing but tranquility and joy. This will apply to all levels of existence (you as an individual, society, etc.).
I write these words while leaning my back against the cinder blocks which constitute the walls of my prison cell, right under a window overlooking a brick wall and razor wire fence, under a pale gray sky. Many other Muslims are also here and in various other prisons scattered around the globe. Others are putting their lives on the line each day, fighting to defend and protect humanity's final hope for meaning and happiness - Islam. The world's most powerful government is doing everything it can to wipe us out, along with that hope...but for some reason, we remain the happiest people on Earth.
There is none worthy of worship but Allah, and He has no partners. The kingdom is His, all praise is His, and He is Able to do all things.
Written by: Tariq Mehanna
On the day of 'Arafah
Thursday, 9th of Dhu al-Hijjah 1433 (25th of October 2012)
Terre Haute CMU
United States Federal Prison

by Ashira Naim [Baltimore, Maryland]

The glorious history of man which most archaeologists say began in the land
called Abyssinia (present day Ethiopia) will fill you with pride. It is the
pride of the Kushite civilization, credited as the greatest civilization known
to mankind; many great empires traced back to the Solomonic dynasty; the Axum
and the Axumites and the nearby land of Queen Sheba; the town of the First
Islamic Hijrah—Nejash. All of the foregoing (to just give a peep) is of
Ethiopia. And even as recently as "yesterday" the oldest bones of our ancestor
were found in Ethiopia not far from Addis Abeba, capital city of Ethiopia and of
the continent of Africa. These bones are the record holder of the title, "First
Lady of the Planet Earth." She has been given the name "Lucy."
Our purpose here, however, is not to write about the glory of Ethiopia. One
need only google on line to read countless publications on the subject. What we
want to do today is tell you about our collective SHAME which is reflelcted on
the face of Ethiopia in such a way that if there is any truth in the human being
he/she can see and feel this shame. One cannot hide from the revelation with
which one is confronted; for, to do so is to stand in denial and against truth.

What is this Shameful truth?
Let me pose to you the question this way: Is it not a shame that the minimum
wage in Ethiopia in 2002 was $15 a MONTH (according to Encyclopedia of the Nations)? Add to
this that presently about 85% of the working population work as farmers or as
experts in that field and this hard work is often in "dry" lands. This means
that after a lot of learning for the educated experts and a lot of hard work for
everyone involved, it is difficult to hold up one's head in face of your
children who you must feed and clothe and educate. Yes, such a similar
phenomena exists in varying degrees all over our planet earth; but honestly, do
we not know that this scenario is far worse than any we here in America suffer?
Do we not have the compassion for those whose suffering is far worse than our
Allah says, "Believers are only they whose hearts tremble with awe
whenever Allah's name is mentioned, and whose faith is strengthened whenever
His messages are conveyed unto them, and who in their Sustainer place their
trust—those who are constant in prayer and spend on others out of what we
provide for them as sustenance. It is they who are truly believers!
Theirs shall be great dignity in their Sustainer's sight, and forgiveness of
sins, and a most excellent sustenance." (Holy Quran 8: 2-4).

Do we not know that it is a shame that after all these years (1400+) since the
country of Ethiopia opened its doors to the fleeing sahabas (RA) some of whom
were relatives of the Prophet (SAW) in the town of Nejash through a king whom
the Prophet (SAW) described as a good man—yet, the muslims pay due honor to
Mecca in telling the history of Islam but seldom mention that first hijrah to
the country from which it is recorded came Ummi Hajarah (wife of Prophet Ibrahim
and mother of Prophet Ismail). Also came Bilal Ibn Rabah the first prayer
caller, the one the Prophet (SAW) said he heard his footsteps ahead of him in
the Jennah. This is the country, my brothers and sisters that first gave refuge
and comfort to The First Believers who made hijrah. Should we not give some
refuge in this day of hunger to our brothers and sisters there? "
SHOULD NOT OUR MUSLIM COMMUNITY (both as individuals and as an ummah) HELP THE

Help us to feed the people on the streets of Addis Ababa. The "Feed the Needy
in Ethiopia" program will make this effort early this coming year 2013. Please
make your contribution to this program directly to

Jamaat al-Muslimeen International
P.O. Box 10881, Baltimore, MD 21234

Letter: Activist Reader Objects to Dr. Siddique's Fatwa that Presidential voting is Kufr.

Dear Dr. Kaukab Siddique,
As I stood in line on Nov.6, I began to read the New Trend(Nov. 3, 2012 edition) that I had printed out the day before. Intrigued with the headline of Sister Maryam Jamillah's death, I was unprepared to read that in your opinion, I was engaging in 'kufr' (by voting). I am a long time reader and contributor to New Trend and this is the first time that I have disagreed with you. I hope other readers will write in and contribute to this astounding conversation.
As a member of N'COBRA (National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in America)- I cannot and dare not abandon my right to vote. With all that my people have withstood in this hell-hole of a federated republic, in fact, the worst 'holocaust' (maafa) known to man- I think we can do whatever we want towards securing the debt that remains due to owed to the descendants of the enslaved African captives, many of whom were Muslims. I also have a personal issue with those persons that chose to emigrate to America and live off of the 'freedom' and 'prosperity' borne of the suffering and labor of my ancestors, while the debt remains unpaid.
So, when I 'vote', I am merely making a choice between so-called representatives and some civic questions / issues that do and will pertain to my (and my family's) everyday life and my well-being. The bottom line, in choosing between R. and O., was to keep R. out of the position. I firmly believe that R. and his people would prefer, to re-place Africans into chattel slavery- based solely on skin color- not on religion. [This American system is already doing thisde-facto through the prison industrial complex.]
I am clearly in my right mind, not practicing kufr and work every day on preserving my Islam (and the Islam of my ancestors) while continuing to be submissive to and never doubting the sovereignty of Allah subhana wa ta 'Alaa'.
Hajjah Nabila Bey, MS, NCC, LPC
[Philadelphia, Pennsylvania]
Female Co-Chair, N'CoBRA Philadelphia Chapter. Coordinator of 'Eid Charity Drives for Muslim Social Service Workers, Inc.

Iqbal, Jinnah and concept of Pakistan
[Excerpted from Wikipedia by Br. Rich in Nebraska.]

Ideologically separated from Congress Muslim leaders, Iqbal had also been disillusioned with the politicians of the Muslim League owing to the factional conflict that plagued the League in the 1920s. Discontent with factional leaders like Sir Muhammad Shafi and Sir Fazl-ur-Rahman, Iqbal came to believe that only Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a political leader capable of preserving this unity and fulfilling the League's objectives on Muslim political empowerment. Building a strong, personal correspondence with Jinnah, Iqbal was an influential force in convincing Jinnah to end his self-imposed exile in London, return to India and take charge of the League. Iqbal firmly believed that Jinnah was the only leader capable of drawing Indian Muslims to the League and maintaining party unity before the British and the Congress:

"I know you are a busy man but I do hope you won't mind my writing to you often, as you are the only Muslim in India today to whom the community has right to look up for safe guidance through the storm which is coming to North-West India and, perhaps, to the whole of India."[29]

The two men were quite similar though they had viewed things differently at some time—Iqbal believed that Islam was the source of government and society and Jinnah worked hard to get Muslims a part in government and state and had laid out an Islamic vision for Pakistan upholding the Islamic value of freedom of religion saying religion would have "nothing to do with the business of the state." Iqbal had backed the Khilafat struggle; Jinnah had dismissed it as "religious frenzy."
And while Iqbal espoused the idea of Muslim-majority provinces in 1930, Jinnah would continue to hold talks with the Congress through the decade and only officially embraced the goal of Pakistan in 1940. Some historians postulate that Jinnah always remained hopeful for an agreement with the Congress and never fully desired the partition of India.[30] Iqbal's close correspondence with Jinnah is speculated by some historians as having been responsible for Jinnah's embrace of the idea of Pakistan. Iqbal elucidated to Jinnah his vision of a separate Muslim state in a letter sent on 21 June 1937:

"A separate federation of Muslim Provinces, reformed on the lines I have suggested above, is the only course by which we can secure a peaceful India and save Muslims from the domination of Non-Muslims. Why should not the Muslims of North-West India and Bengal be considered as nations entitled to self-determination just as other nations in India and outside India are."[28]

Iqbal, serving as president of the Punjab Muslim League, criticised Jinnah's political actions, including a political agreement with Punjabi leader Sir Sikandar Hyat Khan, whom Iqbal saw as a representative of feudal classes and not committed to Islam as the core political philosophy. Nevertheless, Iqbal worked constantly to encourage Muslim leaders and masses to support Jinnah and the League. Speaking about the political future of Muslims in India, Iqbal said:

"There is only one way out. Muslims should strengthen Jinnah's hands. They should join the Muslim League. Indian question, as is now being solved, can be countered by our united front against both the Hindus and the English. Without it, our demands are not going to be accepted. People say our demands smack of communalism. This is sheer propaganda. These demands relate to the defense of our national existence.... The united front can be formed under the leadership of the Muslim League. And the Muslim League can succeed only on account of Jinnah. Now none but Jinnah is capable of leading the Muslims."[29]

Revival of Islamic polity
 Iqbal with Rahmat Ali
Iqbal with Choudhary Rahmat Ali and other Muslim leaders
Iqbal's six English lectures were published first from Lahore in 1930 and then by Oxford University press in 1934 in a book titled The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam. Which were read at Madras, Hyderabad and Aligarh.[22] These lectures dwell on the role of Islam as a religion as well as a political and legal philosophy in the modern age.[22] In these lectures Iqbal firmly rejects the political attitudes and conduct of Muslim politicians, whom he saw as morally misguided, attached to power and without any standing with Muslim masses.
Iqbal expressed fears that not only would secularism weaken the spiritual foundations of Islam and Muslim society, but that India's Hindu-majority population would crowd out Muslim heritage, culture and political influence. In his travels to Egypt, Afghanistan, Iran and Turkey, he promoted ideas of greater Islamic political co-operation and unity, calling for the shedding of nationalist differences.[6] He also speculated on different political arrangements to guarantee Muslim political power; in a dialogue with Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, Iqbal expressed his desire to see Indian provinces as autonomous units under the direct control of the British government and with no central Indian government. He envisaged autonomous Muslim provinces in India. Under one Indian union he feared for Muslims, who would suffer in many respects especially with regard to their existentially separate entity as Muslims.[28]
Sir Muhammad Iqbal was elected president of the Muslim League in 1930 at its session in Allahabad, in the United Provinces as well as for the session in Lahore in 1932. In his presidential address on 29 December 1930, Iqbal outlined a vision of an independent state for Muslim-majority provinces in northwestern India:[5]

"I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single state. Self-government within the British Empire, or without the British Empire, the formation of a consolidated Northwest Indian Muslim state appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of Northwest India.[5]

In his speech, Iqbal emphasised that unlike Christianity, Islam came with "legal concepts" with "civic significance," with its "religious ideals" considered as inseparable from social order: "therefore, the construction of a policy on national lines, if it means a displacement of the Islamic principle of solidarity, is simply unthinkable to a Muslim."[31] Iqbal thus stressed not only the need for the political unity of Muslim communities, but the undesirability of blending the Muslim population into a wider society not based on Islamic principles.
He thus became the first politician to articulate what would become known as theTwo-Nation Theory—that Muslims are a distinct nation and thus deserve political independence from other regions and communities of India. However, he would not elucidate or specify if his ideal Islamic state would construe a theocracy, even as he rejected secularism and nationalism. The latter part of Iqbal's life was concentrated on political activity. He would travel across Europe and West Asia to garner political and financial support for the League, and he reiterated his ideas in his 1932 address, and during the Third round-Table Conference, he opposed the Congress and proposals for transfer of power without considerable autonomy or independence for Muslim provinces.
He would serve as president of the Punjab Muslim League, and would deliver speeches and publish articles in an attempt to rally Muslims across India as a single political entity. Iqbal consistently criticised feudal classes in Punjab as well as Muslim politicians averse to the League. Many unnoticed account of Iqbal's frustration toward Congress leadership were also pivotal of visioning the two nation theory.


Iqbal's poetic works are written primarily in Persian rather than Urdu. Among his 12,000 verses of poetry, about 7,000 verses are in Persian. In 1915, he published his first collection of poetry, the Asrar-e-Khudi (Secrets of the Self) in Persian. The poems emphasise the spirit and self from a religious, spiritual perspective. Many critics have called this Iqbal's finest poetic work[34] In Asrar-e-Khudi, Iqbal explains his philosophy of "Khudi," or "Self."[5][6] Iqbal's use of the term "Khudi" is synonymous with the word "Rooh" mentioned in the Quran. "Rooh" is that divine spark which is present in every human being, and was present in Adam, for which God ordered all of the angels to prostrate in front of Adam. One has to make a great journey of transformation to realise that divine spark which Iqbal calls "Khudi".[5]
The same concept was used by Farid ud Din Attar in his "Mantaq-ul-Tair". He proves by various means that the whole universe obeys the will of the "Self." Iqbal condemns self-destruction. For him, the aim of life is self-realization and self-knowledge. He charts the stages through which the "Self" has to pass before finally arriving at its point of perfection, enabling the knower of the "Self" to become a vice-regent of God.[22]
In his Rumuz-e-Bekhudi (Hints of Selflessness), Iqbal seeks to prove the Islamic way of life is the best code of conduct for a nation's viability. A person must keep his individual characteristics intact, but once this is achieved he should sacrifice his personal ambitions for the needs of the nation. Man cannot realise the "Self" outside of society. Also in Persian and published in 1917, this group of poems has as its main themes the ideal community,[22] Islamic ethical and social principles, and the relationship between the individual and society. Although he is true throughout to Islam, Iqbal also recognises the positive analogous aspects of other religions. TheRumuz-e-Bekhudi complements the emphasis on the self in the Asrar-e-Khudi and the two collections are often put in the same volume under the titleAsrar-e-Rumuz (Hinting Secrets). It is addressed to the world's Muslims.[22]
Iqbal's 1924 publication, the Payam-e-Mashriq (The Message of the East) is closely connected to theWest-östlicher Diwan by the famous German poet Goethe. Goethe bemoans the West having become too materialistic in outlook, and expects the East will provide a message of hope to resuscitate spiritual values. Iqbal styles his work as a reminder to the West of the importance of morality, religion and civilisation by underlining the need for cultivating feeling, ardour and dynamism. He explains that an individual can never aspire to higher dimensions unless he learns of the nature of spirituality.[22] In his first visit to Afghanistan, he presented his book "Payam-e Mashreq" to King Amanullah Khan in which he admired the liberal movements of Afghanistan against the British Empire. In 1933, he was officially invited to Afghanistan to join the meetings regarding the establishment of Kabul University.[20]
The Zabur-e-Ajam (Persian Psalms), published in 1927, includes the poems Gulshan-e-Raz-e-Jadeed (Garden of New Secrets) and Bandagi Nama (Book of Slavery). In Gulshan-e-Raz-e-Jadeed, Iqbal first poses questions, then answers them with the help of ancient and modern insight, showing how it affects and concerns the world of action.Bandagi Nama denounces slavery by attempting to explain the spirit behind the fine arts of enslaved societies. Here as in other books, Iqbal insists on remembering the past, doing well in the present and preparing for the future, while emphasising love, enthusiasm and energy to fulfill the ideal life.[22]
Iqbal's 1932 work, the Javed Nama (Book of Javed) is named after and in a manner addressed to his son, who is featured in the poems. It follows the examples of the works of Ibn Arabi and Dante's The Divine Comedy, through mystical and exaggerated depictions across time. Iqbal depicts himself as Zinda Rud ("A stream full of life") guided by Rumi, "the master," through various heavens and spheres, and has the honour of approaching divinity and coming in contact with divine illuminations. In a passage re-living a historical period, Iqbal condemns the Muslim who were instrumental in the defeat and death of Nawab Siraj-ud-Daula of Bengal and Tipu Sultan of Mysore respectively by betraying them for the benefit of the British colonists, and thus delivering their country to the shackles of slavery. At the end, by addressing his son Javid, he speaks to the young people at large, and provides guidance to the "new generation."[22]
His love of the Persian language is evident in his works and poetry. He says in one of his poems:[35]
 { urdu }
garche Urdu dar uzubat shekkar ast
tarz-e goftar-e Dari shirin tar ast
Translation: Even though in sweetness Urdu* is sugar -(but) speech method in Dari (Persian) is sweeter *


Iqbal's Bang-e-Dara (The Call of the Marching Bell),the first collection of Urdu poetry was published in 1924. It was written in three distinct phases of his life.[22] The poems he wrote up to 1905—(the year Iqbal left for England) reflects patriotism and imagery of nature, that includes the Tarana-e-Hind (The song of India),[20] and another poem Tarana-e-Milli (The song of the Community), The second set of poems from 1905—1908; when Iqbal studied in Europe and dwell upon the nature of European society about whom he emphasised had lost spiritual and religious values, these inspired Iqbal to write poems on the historical and cultural heritage of Islam and Muslim community, with the global perspective. Iqbal urges the entire Muslim community, addressed as the Ummah to define personal, social and political existence by the values and teachings of Islam.[22]
Iqbal work mainly in Persian for a predominant period of his career and after 1930, his works were mainly in Urdu. The works of this period were often specifically directed at the Muslim masses of India, with an even stronger emphasis on Islam and Muslim spiritual and political reawakening. Published in 1935, the Bal-e-Jibril (Wings of Gabriel) is considered by many critics as the finest of Iqbal's Urdu poetry, and was inspired by his visit to Spain, where he visited the monuments and legacy of the kingdom of the Moors. It consists of ghazals, poems, quatrains, epigrams and carries a strong sense of religious passion.[22]
The Pas Cheh Bayed Kard ai Aqwam-e-Sharq (What are we to do, O Nations of the East?) includes the poem Musafir (Traveler). Again, Iqbal depicts Rumi as a character and an exposition of the mysteries of Islamic laws and Sufi perceptions is given. Iqbal laments the dissension and disunity among the Indian Muslims as well as Muslim nations.Musafir is an account of one of Iqbal's journeys to Afghanistan, in which the Pashtun people are counselled to learn the "secret of Islam" and to "build up the self" within themselves.[22] Iqbal's final work was the Armughan-e-Hijaz (The Gift of Hijaz), published posthumously in 1938. The first part contains quatrains in Persian, and the second part contains some poems and epigrams in Urdu. The Persian quatrains convey the impression as though the poet is travelling through the Hijaz in his imagination. Profundity of ideas and intensity of passion are the salient features of these short poems.[22]
 Sir M Iqbal Bow tie
Sir M. Iqbal wearing Bow tie.
Iqbal's vision of mystical experience is clear in one of his Urdu ghazals which was written in London during his days of studying there. Some verses of that ghazal are:[22]

At last the silent tongue of Hijaz has
announced to the ardent ear the tiding
That the covenant which had been given to the
desert-dwelles is going to be renewed
The lion who had emerged from the desert and
had toppled the Roman Empire is
As I am told by the angels, about to get up
again (from his slumbers.)
You the dwelles of the West, should know that
the world of God is not a shop (of yours).
Your imagined pure gold is about to lose it
standard value (as fixed by you).
Your civilization will commit suicide with its
own daggers.[22]


Iqbal also wrote two books on the topic ofThe Development of Metaphysics in Persia andThe Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam[22] and many letters in English language, besides his Urdu and Persian literary works. In which, he revealed his thoughts regarding Persian ideology and Islamic Sufism - in particular, his beliefs that Islamic Sufism activates the searching soul to a superior perception of life.[22] He also discussed philosophy, God and the meaning of prayer, human spirit and Muslim culture, as well as other political, social and religious problems.[22]
Iqbal was invited to Cambridge to participate in the conference in 1931, where he expressed his views to students and other audience.[22]

"I would like to offer a few pieces of advice to the youngmen who are at present studying at Cambridge ...... I advise you to guard against atheism and materialism. The biggest blunder made by Europe was the separation of Church and State. This deprived their culture of moral soul and diverted it to the atheistic materialism. I had twenty-five years ago seen through the drawbacks of this civilization and therefore had made some prophecies. They had been delivered by my tongue although I did not quite understand them. This happened in 1907..... After six or seven years, my prophecies came true, word by word. The European war of 1914 was an outcome of the aforesaid mistakes made by the European nations in the separation of the Church and the State".[22]

Poet of the East

Iqbal has been recognised and quoted as "Poet of the East" by academics and institutions and media.[11][36][37]
The Vice Chancellor, Quaid-e-Azam University, Dr. Masoom Yasinzai described in a seminar as chief guest addressing to distinguished gathering of educationists and intellectuals,that Iqbal is not a poet of the East only, actually he is a universal poet. Moreover, Iqbal is not restricted to any specific segment of the world community but he is for the entire humanity.[38]

"Yet it should also be born in mind that whilst dedicating his Eastern Divan to Goethe, the cultural icon par excellence, Iqbal's Payam-i-Mashriq constituted both a reply as well as a corrective to the Western Divan of Goethe. For by stylising himself as the representative of the East, Iqbal's endeavour was to talk on equal terms to Goethe as the representative of West."[39]

Iqbal's revolutionary works through his poetry awakened the Muslims of the subcontinent. Iqbal was confident that the Muslims had long been suppressed by the colonial enlargement and growth of the West. In this concept Iqbal is recognised as the "Poet of the East".[37][40][41]

"So to conclude, let me cite Annemarie Schimmel in Gabriel's Wing who lauds Iqbal's "unique way of weaving a grand tapestry of thought from eastern and western yarns" (p. xv), a creative activity which, to cite my own volume Revisioning Iqbal, endows Muhammad Iqbal with the stature of a "universalist poet" and thinker whose principle aim was to explore mitigating alternative discourses with a view to constructing a bridge between the 'East' and the 'West' ".[39]

Urdu world is very familiar with Iqbal as the "Poet of the East".[41]

Iqbal and the West
 Iqbal Street in Heidelberg Germany
Name plate of a streetIqbal-Ufer, Heidelberg, Germany, honoured in the name of Iqbal.[42]
 Iqbal Plaque Plaza de Pakistan Buenos Aires Argentina
The Iqbal Plaque was inaugurated by Naela Chohan in the Plaza de Pakistan, Buenos Aires, Argentina (2012)
Iqbal's views on the Western world were applauded by men including United States Supreme Court Associate Justice William O. Douglas, who said that Iqbal's beliefs had "universal appeal".[43] In his Soviet biography N. P. Anikoy wrote:

"(Iqbal is) great for his passionate condemnation of weak will and passiveness, his angry protest against inequality, discrimination and oppression in all forms i.e., economic, social, political, national, racial, religious, etc., his preaching of optimism, an active attitude towards life and man's high purpose in the world, in a word, he is great for his assertion of the noble ideals and principles of humanism, democracy, peace and friendship among peoples.".[43]

Others, including Wilfred Cantwell Smith, stated that with Iqbal's anti-capitalist holdings he was 'anti-intellect', because "capitalism fosters intellect".[43] Professor Freeland Abbot objected to Iqbal's views saying that Iqbal's view of the West was based on the role of imperialism and Iqbal was not immersed enough in Western culture to learn about the various benefits of the modern democracies, economic practices and science.[43] Critics of Abbot's viewpoint note that Iqbal was raised and educated in European way of life, and spent enough time there to grasp the general concepts of Western civilisation.

2012-11-11 Sun 14:34:08 cst